[The social background of male to female transsexuals].


Gender alignment surgery was introduced into German law in 1981. Judicial guidelines for the change of first names and gender were established and transsexuality was labelled as a psychosomatic and somatopsychic syndrome and disorder, thus opening the way for treatment to the social health-care under well-defined conditions requesting cross-dressing and hormone therapy as well as psychological counselling by 2 independent psychologists or psychiatrists. In a retrospective, chart-related survey of questionnaires on male to female transsexuals it was found that patients start to suspect being born into the wrong gender at the onset of puberty, it takes them however approximately 20 years to have gender alignment surgery. More than half the patients are single at this time, while the remaining group is married or divorced with equal rates. 68% regard themselves as heterosexual, 21% lesbian and 11% were undecided. About half the patients experienced support by their families for their decision. Despite numerous secondary corrections of the surgical alignment, patients were content with the result, although emotional acceptance of the desired result took about one year. In general plastic surgical gender alignment treatment was perceived as the major contribution to harmonise their phenotype with their identity.

The use and correlates of illicit silicone or "fillers" in a population-based sample of transwomen, san francisco, 2013.



There is a dearth of studies to quantify the use of illicit fillers by transwomen. Case studies of illicit filler injections have pointed to an array of serious health complications, including death.


The aims of this study were to determine the population prevalence and identify correlates of filler use among transwomen in San Francisco, CA.


An analysis of data collected in 2013 with a population-based sample of 233 transwomen recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). We used RDS weights to conduct bivariate and multivariate analyses of correlates of filler use.


Main outcome measures were an RDS-weighted population prevalence of filler use among transwomen and differences in demographic characteristics, transition-related care factors, and self-esteem related to appearance.


Weighted filler prevalence among transwomen was 16.7%. Being a transwoman between 30 and 49 years of age, owning/renting or living with a partner/family/friend, having had and planning to have surgery in the future, and having used nonprescribed hormones were all significantly associated with filler use. HIV was not associated with filler use.


This study provides the first known estimate to date of the prevalence of filler use in a population-based sample of transwomen in San Francisco. Accessing illicit fillers may be the only choice available for many transwomen to make changes to their appearance due to the high cost of legal surgeries and other cosmetic procedures. An important next step in this research is to determine the overall prevalence and long-term consequences of filler use among transwomen, to explore how the use of fillers is protective to the safety and well-being of transwomen, and to find safe and affordable alternatives to this method that meet important gender-related appearance needs.
Development of systemic lupus erythematosus in a male-to-female transsexual: the role of sex hormones revisited.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women of childbearing age. The infrequency of SLE in men and disease onset in prepubertal or postmenopausal women suggests a role of estrogen in the predisposition to the disease. Patients with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism are prone to the development of SLE, and the use of exogenous estrogens in women increases the relative risk of SLE onset and disease flares. These observations provide indirect evidence for an opposite role of estrogens and androgens in the pathogenesis of SLE. We report on a male-to-female transsexual who developed SLE 20 years after sex-reassignment surgery and prolonged estrogen therapy. The role of sex hormones in SLE is revisited.

Sexual behavior of gender-dysphoric individuals before gender-confirming interventions: a European multicenter study.


A transsexual course of development that starts before puberty (early onset) or during or after puberty, respectively (late onset), may lead to diverse challenges in coping with sexual activity. The authors explored the sexual behavior of 380 adult male-to-female and female-to-male individuals diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who had not yet undergone gender-confirming interventions. Data originated from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence Initiative, conducted in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, and Norway. Information on outcome variables was collected using self-administered questionnaires at first clinical presentation. Compared with late-onset male-to-females, early-onset individuals tended to show sexual attraction toward males more frequently (50.5%), involve genitals less frequently in partner-related sexual activity, and consider penile sensations and orgasm as more negative. Early-onset female-to-males predominantly reported sexual attraction toward females (84.0%), whereas those with a late-onset more frequently showed other sexual attractions (41.7%). The study (a) shows that early- and late-onset male-to-females differ considerably with regard to coping strategies involving their body during sexual relations and (b) reveals initial insights into developmental pathways of late-onset female-to-males.

Gender Dysphoria – Prevalence and Co-Morbidities in an Irish Adult Population

Abstract (free full text available):

Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender identity disorder was officially renamed “gender dysphoria” in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and has not been well-documented in Ireland.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy (HT) between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment during the study period.

Results: The prevalence of GD in the Irish population was 1:10,154 male-to-female (MTF) and 1:27,668 female-to-male (FTM), similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were MTF and 59 were FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort, respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6 years (MTF) and 32.2 years (FTM). 22 of the patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on HT, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS). Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%).

Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health, and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals is essential.
Keywords: gender dysphoria, gender identity disorder, transgender, gender reassignment surgery, gonadectomy, hormone therapy